In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, the European Union (EU) implemented the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID) and its subsequent revision, MiFID II, with the primary goal of safeguarding investors and improving the regulation of financial markets. These comprehensive frameworks have brought about a series of significant changes that have greatly influenced the landscape of investments. MiFID II, as an updated version, has introduced various measures to bolster transparency, enhance the conduct of business, and enforce stringent governance requirements for investment firms operating within the EU.

Under MiFID II, there is a stronger focus on investor protection and conduct of business. Compliance officers play a crucial role in ensuring that staff understand and comply with the regulatory requirements when selling or advising on MiFID financial instruments. Strict controls over remuneration incentivize staff to adopt prudent financial positions that align their interests with those of the clients. Additionally, the staff are required to issue periodic suitability assessments to clients to ensure the appropriateness of the portfolio management and financial advice given.

Authorities, under the MiFID II, are able to exert more power over the financial markets in order to contain stability risks. Financial instruments are now passive to investigation and may be restricted or suspended if they are not sound. The component authorities have many instruments that allow greater regulatory control, such as emissions allowances and structured deposits, while also bringing previously exempt investment firms into the regulatory framework. As a result, some firms seek authorization under MiFID II before issuing investment instruments for potential clients. The authorization process for investment firms has been standardized across Europe, streamlining the process, and ensuring consistent requirements.

The MiFID II introduced the Organized Trading Facility (OTF), a new trading venue specifically designed for non-equity instruments like bonds, structured products, and derivatives. Furthermore, transaction reporting requirements have been expanded, obligating firms to report a broader range of information, including the identification of individuals or algorithms responsible for investment decisions. These measures collectively enhance transparency and regulatory oversight in the financial markets, fostering a more accountable and informed investment environment.

In addition to MiFID II, the Investment Firms Regulation, and Investment Firms Directive (IFR/IFD) were introduced. These regulations introduce prudential requirements tailored to the risks associated with different types of investment firms. The focus is on mitigating risks faced by firms and potential harm to clients and the market. Under the IFR/IFD framework, investment firms are classified into different categories, and prudential requirements are determined based on their classification. Systemic firms and those performing bank-like activities remain subject to existing prudential requirements, while other firms move to the IFR/IFD regime with specific requirements based on their classification.

The classification of firms is determined by the calculation of K-factors. From this calculation, the firms will need to have the funds required to cover risks to customers, risks to the market and risks to the firm. Liquidity requirements and disclosures related to risk management objectives, governance, and own funds composition are also part of the reporting obligations for investment firms.

Overall, MiFID II and the IFR/IFD framework have significantly transformed the regulatory landscape for investment firms in the EU. The emphasis on investor protection, transparency, and prudential requirements aims to create a more secure and accountable financial market environment.

With stability in mind, the MiFID and the IFR/IFD frameworks were created to strengthen transparency in the financial markets. It profoundly transformed the regulatory landscape for investment firms in the EU with its requirements extending beyond the original limited transparency requirements to cover investment instruments beyond equities in order to regulate non-equity instruments. The regulation ensures that pre-trade and post-trade disclosures relate to orders and transactions on trading venues. However, even during its most recent update in 2018, the MiFID II did not address crypto assets.

Recent introduction of the Market in Crypto-assets Regulation (MiCA) regulations brought crypto assets within regulatory purview, which has directly impacted the framework established by MiFID II. It ensures that firms providing crypto-asset services adhere to similar standards of transparency, investor protection, and market integrity as traditional service providers. The regulatory expansion brought by MiCA created a more consistent and comprehensive framework for the evolving crypto-asset market while maintaining the core objectives set by the MiFID II.


The implementation of MiFID II and the subsequent introduction of the IFR/IFD framework have ushered in a new era of regulation and oversight for investment firms in the European Union. These frameworks prioritize investor protection, transparency, and prudential requirements, ensuring a more accountable and secure financial market environment. With the recent inclusion of MiCA, which extends regulatory oversight to crypto assets, the regulatory landscape becomes even more comprehensive and consistent. As the financial industry continues to evolve, these frameworks will play a crucial role in maintaining market integrity, safeguarding investors, and fostering sustainable growth in the EU's financial markets.

Based in Zug, the platform is fully compliant with all Swiss laws related to financial intermediaries, banking, anti-money laundering, and organized trading facilities. Among its core values, there are innovative solutions through blockchain technology, which ensures security and liquidity.

EDSX is the first platform in Europe with primary and secondary markets for both institutional and retails. EDSX is a pioneering platform that employs the world’s leading technology to globally list security tokens in both primary and secondary markets, listing digital securities of real financial instruments to the public with a decentralized peer-to-peer exchange. Our goal is to fully engage every aspect of the financial revolution.

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